Skip to main content

A middleware platform to support river monitoring using wireless sensor networks

Abstract

Flooding is a critical global problem, which is growing more severe due to the effects of climate change. This problem is particularly acute in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, where flooding during the rainy season incurs significant financial and human costs. Another critical problem associated with flooding is the high level of pollution present in urban rivers. Efforts to address these problems focus upon three key research areas: river monitoring, modelling of river conditions and incident response. This paper introduces a rich next-generation middleware platform designed to support wireless sensor network based environmental monitoring along with a supporting hardware platform. This system has been deployed and evaluated in a real-world river monitoring scenario in the city of São Carlos, Brazil.

References

  1. 1.

    Douglas BC (1997) Global sea rise: a redetermination. Surv Geophys 18:279–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Mendiondo EM (2008) Challenging issues of urban biodiversity related to ecohydrology. Braz J Biol 68(4):983–1002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Römer K, Mattern F (2004) The design space of wireless sensor networks. IEEE Wirel Commun 11(6):54–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Mainwaring A, Polastre J, Szewczyk R, Anderson J (2002) Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring. In: Proc of 1st ACM international workshop on wireless sensor networks and applications, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp 88–97

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Hughes D, Greenwood P, Coulson G, Blair G, Pappenberger F, Smith P, Beven K (2007) An experiment with reflective middleware to support grid-based flood monitoring. Inter-Sci J Concurr Comput, Pract Exp 20(11):1303–1316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Taneja J, Jeong J, Culler D (2008) Design, modelling, and capacity planning for micro-solar power sensor networks. In: Proc of the 7th international conference on information processing in sensor networks, IPSN SPOTS ’08, pp 407–418

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hill J, Szewczyk R, Woo A, Hollar S, Culler D, Pister K (2000) System architecture directions for networked sensors. ACM SIGPLAN 35(11):93–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dunkels A, Grönvall B, Voigt T (2004) Contiki—a lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors. In: Proc of 29th IEEE international conference on local computer networks, LCN’04, Tampa, FL, USA, pp 455–462

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Han CC, Rengaswamy RK, Shea R, Kohler E, Srivastava M (2005) SOS: A dynamic operating system for sensor networks. In: Proc of the 3rd international conference on mobile systems, applications and services, Mobisys’05, pp 211–224

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    IEEE Computer Society (2009) IEEE Standard 802.15.4d-2009, April 17

  11. 11.

    Crossbow, MICA-Z wireless measurement system. Data sheet http://www.xbow.com/Products/Product_pdf_files/Wireless_pdf/MICAz_Datasheet.pdf

  12. 12.

    MoteIV. T-MOTE sky ultra-low power wireless module. Data sheet http://www.cs.uvm.edu/~crobinso/mote/tmote-sky-datasheet-102.pdf

  13. 13.

    DeRoure D. Improving flood warning times using pervasive and grid computing. Available online at http://envisense.org/floodnet/ingenia/ingenia.htm

  14. 14.

    Microsystems Sun Java ME—the most ubiquitous application platform for mobile devices. http://java.sun.com/javame/index.jsp

  15. 15.

    Sentilla. Perk frequently asked questions. http://www.sentilla.com/perk_faq.html

  16. 16.

    Coulson G, Blair G, Grace P, Taiani F, Joolia A, Lee K, Ueyama J, Sivaharan T (2008) A generic component model for building systems software. ACM Trans Comput Syst 26(1)

  17. 17.

    Matthys N, Huygens C, Hughes D, Michiels S, Joosen W (2009) Flexible integration of data qualities in wireless sensor networks. In: Proc of the 4th international workshop on middleware tools, services and run-time support for sensor networks, MidSens’09, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, USA

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Waysmall Computers. Gumstix embedded computing platform specifications. Available online at http://gumstix.com/spexboards.html

  19. 19.

    Costa P, Coulson G, Gold R, Lad M, Mascolo C, Mottola L, Picco GP, Sivaharan T, Weerasinghe N, Zachariadis S (2007) The RUNES middleware for networked embedded systems and its application in a disaster management scenario. In: Proc of the 5th annual IEEE international conference on pervasive computing and communications, PerCom’07, White Plains, New York, pp 69–78

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Porter B, Coulson G (2009) Lorien: a pure dynamic component-based operating system for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc of the 4th international workshop on middleware tools, services and run-time support for sensor networks, MidSens’09, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, USA

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Russello G, Mostarda L, Dulay N (2008) Escape: a component-based policy framework for sense and react applications. In: Proc of the 11th international symposium on component-based software engineering, CBSE’08, pp 212–229

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Zhu Y, Keoh S, Sloman M, Lupu E (2009) A lightweight policy system for body sensor networks. IEEE Trans Netw Serv Manag 6(3):137–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Huygens C, Joosen W (2009) Federated and shared use of sensor networks through security middleware. In: Proc of the 6th international conference on information technology: new generations, ITNG’09, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, pp 1005–1011

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Steffan J, Fiege L, Cilia M, Buchmann A (2005) Towards multi-purpose wireless sensor networks. In: Proc of IEEE systems communications, ICW’05, Montreal, Canada, pp 336–341

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Iwao T, Nomura K, Pitt J, Amamiya M (2005) A control model of multi-purpose sensor networks by policies. In: Proc of active media technology, AMT’05, Kagawa, Japan, pp 429–434

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kansal A, Nath S, Liu J, Zhao F (2007) SenseWeb an infrastructure for shared sensing. IEEE Multimed 14(4):8–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Hughes D, Thoelen K, Horré W, Matthys N, Michiels S, Huygens C, Joosen W (2009) LooCI: a loosely-coupled component infrastructure for networked embedded systems. In: Proc of the 7th international conference on advances in mobile computing & multimedia, MoMM’09. ACM, New York

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Horré W, Hughes D, Michiels S, Joosen W. QARI: Quality aware software deployment for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc of the 7th international conference on information technology: new generations, ITNG’10

  29. 29.

    Mendiondo EM, Valdes JB (2002) Strategies for sustainable development of water resources systems. In: Proc of 2nd int conf new trends in water & environ eng for safety & life: eco-compatible solutions for aquatic ecosystems, Capri, Italy, 2002

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Mendiondo EM (2005a) Scenarios of South American floods—From mitigating disasters to early-warning strategies In: Takara K et al. (eds) Proceedings from international conference on monitoring. Prediction and mitigation of water-related disasters MPMD 2005, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 12–15 Jan. Kyoto: DPRI

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Mendiondo EM (2010) Reducing vulnerability to water-related disasters in urban areas of the humid tropics. In: Parkinson et al. (eds) Integrated urban water management: humid tropics. Urban water series, vol 6. Leiden: UNESCO/Taylor&Francis, pp 109–124. Chapt. 6, ISSN 1749-0790

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Clarke RT, Mendiondo EM, Brusa LC (2000) Uncertainties in mean discharges from two large South American rivers due to rating curve variability. Hydrol Sci J 45(2):221–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Neiff JJ, Mendiondo EM, Depettris CA (2000) ENSO floods on river ecosystems: from catastrophes to myths. In: Toensmann F, Koch M (eds) “River flood defence”, Proceedings from I international symposium on flood defence. Kassel: Herkules

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Tucci CEM (2010) Integrated urban water management in the humid tropics. In: Parkinson et al. (eds) Integrated urban water management: humid tropics. Urban Water Series, vol 6. Leiden: UNESCO/Taylor&Francis, pp 1–15. Chapt. 1, ISSN 1749-0790

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Benetti AD, Campos L (2010) Water supply and wastewater management in the humid tropics. In: Parkinson et al. (eds) Integrated urban water management: humid tropics. Urban Water Series, vol 6. Leiden: UNESCO/Taylor&Francis, pp 25–40. Chapt. 2, ISSN 1749-0790

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Mendiondo E (2008) Challenging issues of urban biodiversity related to ecohydrology. Braz J Biol 68:983–1002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Clarke T, Mendiondo E, Brusa L (2000) Uncertainties in mean discharge from two South American rivers (Amazonas and Paraná) due to rating curve variability. Hydrol Sci J 45(2):221–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Barros R, Wendland E, Mendiondo E (2007) Cálculo de áreas inundáveis devido às enchentes para o Plano Diretor de Drenagem Urbana na Bacia Escola do Gregório, São Carlos. Rev Bras Recur Hídr 12:5–17

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Coulson G, Hughes D, Blair G, Grace P (2008) The evolution of the GridStix wireless sensor network platform. In: Proc of the international workshop on sensor network engineering, IWSNE’08, Santorini, Greece

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    The LooCI project on google code. Available online at http://code.google.com/p/looci/

  41. 41.

    Simon D, Cifuentes C, Cleal D, Daniels J, White D (2006) Java on the bare metal of wireless sensor devices: the squawk java virtual machine. In: Proc of the 2nd international conference on virtual execution environments, Ottawa, Canada, pp 78–88

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Preuveneers D, Berbers Y (2008) Encoding semantic awareness in resource-constrained devices. IEEE Intell Syst 23(2):26–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Smith P, Hughes D, Beven K, Cross P, Tych W, Coulson G, Blair G (2009) Towards the provision of site specific flood warnings using wireless sensor networks. Inter-Sci J Meteorol Appl 16(1):57–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Prayatib A, Antonopoulosa C, Stoyanovaa T, Koulamasb C, Papadopoulosa G (2010) A modelling approach on the TelosB WSN platform power consumption. J Syst Softw 83(8):1355–1363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Sundaresan S, Koren I, Koren Z, Krishna CM (2009) Event-driven adaptive duty-cycling in sensor networks. Int J Sens Netw 6(2):89–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Vigorito CM, Ganesan D, Barto AG (2007) Adaptive control of duty cycling in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks. In: Proc of 4th annual IEEE communications society conference on sensor, mesh and ad hoc communications and networks, SECON’07, San Diego, California, pp 21–30

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    IWT Stadium project 80037. Software technology for adaptable distributed middleware. http://distrinet.cs.kuleuven.be/projects/stadium/

  48. 48.

    Mosquera-Machado S, Ahmad S (2007) Flood hazard assessment of Atrato river in Colombia. Water Resour Manag 21(3):591–609

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Danny Hughes.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hughes, D., Ueyama, J., Mendiondo, E. et al. A middleware platform to support river monitoring using wireless sensor networks. J Braz Comput Soc 17, 85–102 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13173-011-0029-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Middleware
  • Multiparadigm programming