Skip to main content

A contextualised Learning Interaction Memory


The interaction is the key element used in Collaborative Learning Environments to understand the process of knowledge building and the role played by each student in it. Interaction analysis can provide support for the students’ reflection and self-regulation processes as well as for the teachers’ activities. But to perform the analysis process, it is important to discover and register the context where each interaction has occurred, in order to understand the meaning of user interactions. However, although there are several approaches for Interaction Analysis in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, there is a lack of methods and tools that consider: (1) the context where the interactions have occurred; (2) the different needs of feedback from the point of view of teacher and students; and (3) the necessity of contextualized historical information to produce more complete and semantically rich reports for students and teachers. In this light, this paper presents a Learning Interaction Memory (LIM), used to store the learning interactions occurred in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments, taking into account the context where they have occurred. The LIM was modelled in a multidimensional structure so that interactions can be viewed from different perspectives and can be presented selectively, according to users’ needs. This paper also presents the process of construction and exploration of the LIM and a Context-Based Analytical Environment called SmartChat+: an environment for collaborative discussions of specific subjects that uses the LIM. In order to show the feasibility of the LIM, a series of exploratory studies was carried out, yielding good initial results, especially in what concerns feedback from the users.


  1. R. Araujo, P. Brézillon. Reinforcing Shared Context to Improve Collaborative Work. Revue d’Intelligence Artificielle.Special Issue on Applying Context Management. S. Schultz, T. Roth-Berghofer & P. Brézillon (Eds.), 19(3): 537–556, 2005

  2. M. Bazire, P. Brézillon, Ch. Tijus. Eléments Intervenants dans le Contexte d’une Activité Finalisée. Ed. J.M.C. Bastien. InActes des Deuxièmes Journées d’Etude en Psychologie Ergonomique — EPIQUE’2003, INRIA, pages 281–286, 2003.

  3. M. Bazire, P. Brézillon. Understanding Context before to Use It. InProceedings of Modelling and Using Context (CONTEXT-05), A. Dey, B.Kokinov, D.Leake, R.Turner (Eds.), Springer Verlag, LNAI 3554, pages 29–40, 2005.

  4. M. R. S. Borges, J. A. Pino. Requirements for Shared Memory in CSCW applications. InProceedings of 10th Annual Workshop On Information Technologies and Systems (WITS’2000), Brisbane, Australia, pages 211–216, 2000.

  5. P. Brézillon. Context in Problem Solving: A survey.The Knowledge Engineering Review, 14(1): 1–34, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. P. Brézillon. Making Context Explicit in Communicating Objects. Eds: C. Kintzig, G. Poulain, G. Privat, P.-N. Favennec,Communicating Objects, Hermes Science Editions, Lavoisier, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  7. A. Collins, J. S. Brown. The Computer as a Tool for Learning through Reflection. Eds. H. Mandl and A. Lesgold.Learning Issues for Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pages 1–18, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  8. E. J. Conklin.Designing Organizational Memory: Preserving Intellectual Assets in a Knowledge Economy. June, 2007

  9. M. Constantino-González, D. Suthers. Coaching Collaboration by Comparing Solutions and Tracking Participation. Eds. P. Dillenbourg, A. Eurelings & K. Hakkarainen. InProceedings EuroCSCL 2001, Maastricht, The Netherlands, pages 173–180, 2001.

  10. J. Coutaz, J. L. Crowley, S. Dobson, D. Garlan. Context is Key.Communications of the ACM, 48(3): 49–53, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. T. Daradoumis, A. Martínez-Monés, F. Xhafa. A Layered Framework for Evaluating On-line Collaborative Learning Interactions.International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(6):622–6355, 2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. H. M. Deitel. Java — Como Programar. Prentice-Hall do Brasil, 6a edição, 2006 (in Portuguese).

  13. A. K. Dey, D. Salber, G. D. Abowd. A Conceptual Framework and a Toolkit for Supporting the Rapid Prototyping of Context-Aware Applications.Context-Aware Computing, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Journal, 16: 97–166, 2001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. P. Dillenbourg. What do You Mean by Collaborative Learning?. Ed. P. Dillenbourg.Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches, Oxford: Elsevier, pages 1–19, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  15. P. Dourish, V. Bellotti. Awareness and Coordination in Shared Workspaces. J. Turner and R. Kraut (Eds.)Proceedings of the conference of the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’92). ACM Press, Toronto, Ontario, pages 107–114, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  16. P. Dourish. What We Talk About When We Talk About Context.Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8(1): 19–30, 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. M. E. Eleuterio. Mediating Collective Discussions Using an Intelligent Argumentation-Based Framework. InProceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2002, Chesapeake, VA: AACE, pages 472–477, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  18. C. Figueira Filho, G. Ramalho. JEOPS — Java Embedded Object Production System. Eds Monard, M. C; Sichman, J. S. InProceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1952: 53–62, Springer-Verlag, 2000.

  19. H. Fuks, M. L. Cunha, M. A. Gerosa, C. J. P. Lucena. Using the AulaNet Learning Environment to Implement Collaborative Learning via Internet.Innovations 2003 — World Innovations in Engineering Education and Research. INEER, USA, pages 225–235, 2003

    Google Scholar 

  20. B. Goodman, A. Soller, F. Linton, R. Gaimari. Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation using a Learning Companion.International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 9(4): 237–255, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  21. J. Grundy, W. Mugridge, J. Hosking, R. Amor. Support for Collaborative, Integrated Software Development. Ed. Verrall. InProceedings of Software Engineering Environments, IEEE CS Press, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands, pages 84–94, 1995.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  22. M. Kantor, B. Zimmermann, D. Redmiles. From Group Memory to Project Awareness Through Use of the Knowledge Depot. InProceedings of the 1997 California Software Symposium, UCI Irvine Research Unit in Software, Irvine, CA, pages 19–26, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  23. R. Kimball, L. Reeves, M. Ross, W. Thomthwaite, The Datawarehouse Lifecycle Toolkit: Tools and Techniques for Designing, Developing and Deploying Data Warehouses. Jonh Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998

    Google Scholar 

  24. W. Kunz, H. Rittel. Issues as Elements of Information Systems.Working Paper No. 131, Institute of Urban and regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  25. J. Lonchamp. Supporting Synchronous Collaborative Learning: A Generic, Multi-Dimensional Model.Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. 1(2):247–276, 2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Microsoft SQL Server — Analysis Server. November, 2006.

  27. M. K. Pinheiro, J. V. Lima, M. R. S. Borges. A Framework for Awareness Support in Groupware Systems.Computers in Industry, Netherlands, 52(1): 47–57, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  28. E. T. Ray. Learning XML. O’Reilly and Associates, 2001.

  29. E. Rich. Stereotypes and User Modeling. Eds. A. Kobsa & W. Wahlster,User Models in Dialog Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pages 35–51,1989.

    Google Scholar 

  30. M. Rittenbruch. ATMOSPHERE: A Framework for Contextual Awareness.International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 14(2): 159–180, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. J. Robertson, J. Good, H. Pain. BetterBlether: The Design and Evaluation of a Discussion Tool for Education.International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, (9): 219–236, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  32. M. G. P. Rosa, M. R. S. Borges, F. M. Santoro. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the Use of Context in Groupware. InProceedings of International Workshop on Groupware, Autrans, France, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Germany, 2806: 300–313, 2003.

  33. F. M. Santoro, P. Brézillon. The Role of the Shared Context in Group Storytelling.Computers and Informatics, Special Issue on “Groupware, Context and Design”. M.R.S. Borges, H. Fuks, S. Lukosh and J.A. Pino (Eds.) 25(6): 1001–1026, 2006.

  34. J. W. Satzinger, M. J. Garfield, M. Nagasundaram. The Creative Process: The Effects of Group Memory on Individual Idea Generation.Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(4):143–160, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  35. P. Seetharaman, S. Paul. Organizational Memory in Group Decision Making: Use of Constructive Group Conflict. InProceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), pages 19–21, 2003.

  36. S. A. Siebra. Analysing Participant’s Interactions in Collaborative Learning Environment. CIn — Federal University of Pernambuco, PhD. Thesis, Recife — Pernambuco — Brazil, 2007.

  37. S. A. Siebra, C. R. Christ, A. E. M. Queiroz, P. C. A. R. Tedesco, F. M. Barros. SmartChat — An Intelligent Environment for Collaborative Discussions.Proceedings of ITS 2004, Maceió, AL, pages 883–885, 2004.

  38. S. A. Siebra, A. C. Salgado, P. A. Tedesco. Structuring Participants’ Interactions in Collaborative Learning Environments.Proceedings of WebMedia/LA-Web 2004 — WCSCW, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, pages 181–187, 2004.

  39. S. A. Siebra, A. C. Salgado, P. A. Tedesco, P. Brézillon. Identifying the interaction context in CSCLE.Modeling and Using Context (CONTEXT-05), A. Dey, B.Kokinov, D.Leake, R.Turner (Eds.), Springer Verlag, LNAI 3554, pages 464–475, 2005

  40. Siebra, S., Salgado, A.C., Brézillon, P. and Tedesco, P. A Learning Interaction Memory using Contextual Information. In: Context and Work Group Workshop, 2005, Paris.Context and Work Group Workshop, 2005. vol. 133, pages 1–12, 2005

  41. A. Sintes.Aprenda Programação Orientada a Objetos em 21 dias, Makron, 1a. edição, 2002 (in Portuguese)

  42. M. Sohlenkamp. Supporting Group Awareness in Multi-User Enviroment Through Perceptualization, M. Sc. Dissertation., Fachbereich Mathematik-Informatik der Universit — Gesamthochschule-Paderborn, 1998.

  43. A. Soller, A. Lesgold. A Computational Approach to Analyzing Online Knowledge Sharing Interaction. InProceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Education 2003, Sydney, Australia, pages 253–260, 2003.

  44. A. Soller, A. Martínez-Monés, P. Jermann, M. Muehlenbrock. From Mirroring to Guiding: A Review of State of the Art Technology for Supporting Collaborative Learning.International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(4): 261–290, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  45. SPEM-OMG,The Software Process Engineering Metamodel Specification. Version 1.1, January 2005. ling_spec_catalog.htm#SPEM June, 2007)

  46. P. A. Tedesco. MArCo: Building an Artificial Conflict Mediator to Support Group Planning Interactions.International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. No. 13, pages 117–155, 2003

  47. A. L. Veerman. Computer-Supported Collaborative learning through argumentation, PhD. Thesis, University of Utrecht, 2000.

  48. A. C. H. Vieira, L. Teixeira, A. Timóteo, P. Tedesco, F. Barros. Analyzing On-Line Collaborative Dialogues: The OXEnTCHÊ-Chat. InProceedings of 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS’2004), Maceió - Brasil, pages 315–324, 2004.

  49. J. P. Walsh, R. D. Dewar. Formulation and the Organizational Life Cycle.Journal of Management Studies, 24(3), 1987.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Siebra, S.A., Salgado, A.C. & Tedesco, P.A. A contextualised Learning Interaction Memory. J Braz Comp Soc 13, 51–66 (2007).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: