Skip to main content

Analyzing, modeling and predicting organizational effects in a distribuited sensor network

Abstract

The organizational design of a distributed system defines how entities act and interact to achieve local and global objectives. We describe how a system employing different types of organizational techniques has been used to address the challenges posed by a distributed sensor network environment. The high-level, multi-agent architecture of this realworld system is given in detail, and we provide empirical results demonstrating the effects the organization has on the system’s performance across several different metrics. As with any design, the particular approach that is employed makes trade-offs, some of which are obvious and some more subtle. The presence of such trade-offs motivates the need for a better understanding of precisely how the organization influences large and small-scale behaviors. To address this need, we first demonstrate how a collection of analytic models can be developed to predict such effects. This experience is then used to ground the presentation of a more comprehensive, domain-independent organizational modeling language called ODML. The structure and capabilities of ODML are explained through the construction of a unified model of our sensor network organization. We then show that this model provides an accurate prediction of the original empirical results.

References

  • 1._K. Decker and V. R. Lesser. Quantitative Modeling of Complex Environments. International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management. Special Issue on Mathematical and Computational Models and Characteristics of Agent Behaviour., 2:215–234, January 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • 2._S. DeLoach. Modeling organizational rules in the multi-agent systems engineering methodology. In Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence on Advances in Artificial Intelligence, pages 1–15. Springer-Verlag, 2002.

  • 3._V. Dignum, J. Vazquez-Salceda, and F. Dignum. Omni: Introducing social structure, norms and ontologies into agent organizations. In Second International Workshop on Programming Multi-Agent Systems at the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, pages 91–102, New York, NY, July 20 2004.

  • 4. M. Fox, M. Barbuceanu, M. Gruninger, and J. Lin. An Organizational Ontology for Enterprise Modeling. In M. J. Prietula, K. M. Carley, and L. Gasser, editors, Simulating Organizations: Computational Models of Institutions and Groups, pages 131–152. AAAI Press / MIT Press, 1998.

  • 5._M. S. Fox. An organizational view of distributed systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 11(1):70–80, Jan. 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 6._B. Horling and V. Lesser. Quantitative Organizational Models for Large-Scale Agent Systems. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Massively Multi-Agent Systems, pages 297–312, Kyoto, Japan, December 2004.

  • 7._B. Horling, R. Mailler, and V. Lesser. A Case Study of Organizational Effects in a Distributed Sensor Network. In Proceedings of the AAAI-04 Workshop on Agent Organizations: Theory and Practice, pages 23–30, San Jose, California, July 2004. AAAI Press, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • 8._B. Horling, R. Mailler, and V. Lesser. Farm: A Scalable Environment for Multi-Agent Development and Evaluation. In A. G. C. Lucena, J. C. A. Romanovsky, and P. Alencar, editors, Advances in Software Engineering for Multi-Agent Systems, pages 220–237. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, February 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • 9._J. F. Hübner, J. S. Sichman, and O. Boissier. A model for the structural, functional, and deontic specification of organizations in multiagent systems. In Proceedings of the Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence (SBIA’02), pages 118–128, 2002.

  • 10._L. Kleinrock. Queueing Systems. Volume I: Theory. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.

    Google Scholar 

  • 11._J. H. Lawton. Distributed Sensor Networks: A Multiagent Perspective, chapter The Radsim Simulator, pages 11–20. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

  • 12._V. Lesser, K. Decker, T. Wagner, N. Carver, A. Garvey, B. Horling, D. Neiman, R. Podorozhny, M. NagendraPrasad, A. Raja, R. Vincent, P. Xuan, and X. Zhang. Evolution of the GPGP/- TAEMS Domain-Independent Coordination Framework. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 9(1):87–143, July 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 13._V. Lesser and L. Erman. Distributed Interpretation: A Model and an Experiment. IEEE Transactions on Computers Special Issue on Distributed Processing, C-29(12):1144–1163, December 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  • 14._V. Lesser, C. Ortiz, and M. Tambe, editors. Distributed Sensor Networks: A Multiagent Perspective (Edited book), volume 9. Kluwer Academic Publishers, May 2003.

  • 15._R. Mailler, V. Lesser, and B. Horling. Cooperative Negotiation for Soft Real-Time Distributed Resource Allocation. In Proceedings of Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems (AAMAS 2003), pages 576–583, Melbourne, July 2003. ACM Press.

  • 16._T.W. Malone, K. Crowston, J. Lee, B. Pentland, C. Dellarocas, G. Wyner, J. Quimby, C. S. Osborn, A. Bernstein, G. Herman, M. Klein, and E. O’Donnell. Tools for inventing organizations: Toward a handbook of organizational processes. Management Science, 45(3):425–443, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 17._H. E. Pattison, D. D. Corkill, and V. R. Lesser. Instantiating Descriptions of Organizational Structures. Distributed Artificial Intelligence, Research Notes in Artificial Intelligence, I:59–96, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • 18._C. Sierra, J. Sabater, J. Augusti, and P. Garcia. SADDE: Social agents design driven by equations. In F. Bergenti, M. Gleizes, and F. Zambonelli, editors, Methodologies and software engineering for agent systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

  • 19._M. Sims, D. Corkill, and V. Lesser. Separating Domain and Coordination in Multi-Agent Organizational Design and Instantiation. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (IAT 2004), Beijing, China, September 2004.

  • 20._M. Sims, C. Goldman, and V. Lesser. Self-Organization through Bottom-up Coalition Formation. In Proceedings of Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems (AAMAS 2003), pages 867–874, Melbourne, AUS, July 2003. ACM Press.

  • 21._R. G. Smith. The contract net protocol: High-level communication and control in a distributed problem solver. IEEE Transctions on Computers, 29(12):1104–1113, 1980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 22._K. Sycara, K. Decker, and M. Williamson. Middleagents for the internet. In Proceedings of IJCAI-97, January 1997.

  • 23._M. Tambe. Towards flexible teamwork. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 7:83–124, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • 24._M. Tambe, J. Adibi, Y. Alonaizon, A. Erdem, G. A. Kaminka, S. Marsella, and I. Muslea. Building agent teams using an explicit teamwork model and learning. Artificial Intelligence, 110(2):215–239, 1999.

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 25._R. M. Turner. The tragedy of the commons and distributed AI systems. In Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Distributed Artificial Intelligence, pages 379–390, Hidden Valley, Pennsylvania, 1993.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers Program under NSF Award No. EEC-0313747. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Effort also sponsored in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under agreement number F30602-99-2-0525. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright annotation thereon. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Air Force Research Laboratory or the U.S. Government.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Horling, B., Lesser, V. Analyzing, modeling and predicting organizational effects in a distribuited sensor network. J Braz Comp Soc 11, 9–26 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03192368

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03192368

Keywords

  • Sensor Network
  • Sensor Node
  • MultiAgent System
  • Organizational Design
  • Sector Size