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Table 3 Techniques selected for design specification [13]. The three columns report respectively the technique name, a brief description of the technique, and its implementation

From: Development and validation of a safe communication protocol compliant to railway standards

Technique Description Implementation
Modular approach Decomposition of a software into small comprehensible parts in order to limit the complexity of the software Definition of different SW modules depending on functionalities needed.
Components Well-defined interfaces and behaviour with respect to the software architecture and design Fully defined interface, parameter number limit
Modelling Use of precise and field-specific graphical formalisms to provide a complete description of the system and its parts. Control flow, state-transition and structure diagrams
Design and coding standard To ensure a uniform layout of the design documents and the produced code, enforce consistent programming and to enforce a standard design method which avoids errors. MISRA C 2012 coding standard [25], adequate coding styles
Strongly typed programming language Reduce the probability of faults by using a language which permits a high level of checking by the compiler Subset of the standard C99: MISRA C 2012 coding standard [25]