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Table 3 Handwritten signature main works

From: An investigation of the predictability of the Brazilian three-modal hand-based behavioural biometric: a feature selection and feature-fusion approach

Paper of origin Feature approach Feature selection approach Error rate
[24] x, y and z coordinates Relief 6.56% EER
[25] Sparse autoencoders PCA 0.83 EER
    0.77 EER
[26] Full factorial and optimal orthogonal experiment design Consistent and discriminative features 2.17% EER
    2.60% EER
[27] Similarity matrix of features PCA 7.4% FAR
    6.4% FRR
[28] Signature writing time, total number of signatures, horizontal and vertical coordinates, pressure value, height angle, inclination angle, and length-width ratio of a signature x and y coordinates Relief 1.25% FAR, 1.25% FRR 5.12% FAR, 5.5 FRR