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Table 1 Relationship among properties (P), quality attributes, architectural patterns and styles, and mediation categories in SoS

From: Software mediators as first-class entities of systems-of-systems software architectures

SoS properties Quality attributes Architectural patterns/styles Mediator categories
P1—continuous accommodation or integration of constituent systems. Cooperation, integration, interoperability (i.e., technical, semantic, and syntactic), portability, and flexibility of constituents, and low-coupling between constituents and the SoS Centralized architecture, publish-subscribe, contract monitoring, ESB, trickle-up, pace layering, MAPE-K, share data, broker, and observer-controller Communication and conversion
P2—assurance of emergent behaviors Coordination of constituents’ capabilities, organizational interoperability, and situation-aware Centralized architecture, SOA, supply chain, reconfiguration control architecture, contract monitor, trickle-up, evolution styles, reflection, MAPE-K, observer-controller, and master-slave Coordination, conversion, and control
P3—necessity of a decision-making or control authority Centralized, decentralized, or full-decentralized control, and accountability of decisions Centralized architecture, SOA, publish-subscribe, pipe-filter, supply chain, reconfiguration control architecture, infrastructure grid, trickle-up, MAPE-K, shared-data, observer-controller, and master-slave Control
P4—evolutionary development. Maintainability, modifiability, separation of concerns, adaptability, portability, low-coupling, flexibility, scalability, integration, and interoperability SOA, publish-subscribe, supply chain, infrastructure grid, ESB, pace layering, evolution styles, reflection, and MAPE-K Coordination, conversion, control
P5—resilience or adaptability of SoS architecture (e.g., dynamic reconfigurations) Adaptability, fault-tolerance, self-organization, robustness, dynamic configurations, availability, and security SOA, publish-subscribe, blackboard, pipe-filter, supply chain, reconfiguration control architecture, ESB, pace layering, evolution styles, reflection, and MAPE-K Coordination and control