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Table 1 The cost of the proposed protocols (n is the number of servers, f is the maximum number of faulty servers, r denotes the number of items the transaction reads, abcast cs denotes an atomic broadcast algorithm for crash-stop failures, and abcast byz is an atomic broadcast algorithm for byzantine failures)

From: Byzantine fault-tolerant deferred update replication

Failure model

Number of servers

Transaction type

Execution

Termination

latency

messages

latency

messages

Crash-stop

2f+1

update

r×2

O(r)

δ(abcast cs )+1

msgs(abcast cs )+O(n)

read-only

r×2

O(r)

Byzantine

3f+1

update

r×2

O(r)

δ(abcast byz )+1

msgs(abcast byz )+O(n2)

read-only

(r+1)×2

O(r)