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Table 1 The cost of the proposed protocols (n is the number of servers, f is the maximum number of faulty servers, r denotes the number of items the transaction reads, abcast cs denotes an atomic broadcast algorithm for crash-stop failures, and abcast byz is an atomic broadcast algorithm for byzantine failures)

From: Byzantine fault-tolerant deferred update replication

Failure model Number of servers Transaction type Execution Termination
latency messages latency messages
Crash-stop 2f+1 update r×2 O(r) δ(abcast cs )+1 msgs(abcast cs )+O(n)
read-only r×2 O(r)
Byzantine 3f+1 update r×2 O(r) δ(abcast byz )+1 msgs(abcast byz )+O(n2)
read-only (r+1)×2 O(r)