Open Access

Cooperative object manipulation in collaborative virtual environments

  • Marcio S. Pinho1,
  • Doug A. Bowman2 and
  • Carla M. Dal Sasso Freitas3
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society14:BF03192559

DOI: 10.1007/BF03192559

Received: 8 June 2008

Accepted: 20 June 2008


Cooperative manipulation refers to the simultaneous manipulation of a virtual object by multiple users in an immersive virtual environment (VE). In this work, we present techniques for cooperative manipulation based on existing single-user techniques. We discuss methods of combining simultaneous user actions, based on the separation of degrees of freedom between two users, and the awareness tools used to provide the necessary knowledge of the partner activities during the cooperative interaction process. We also present a framework for supporting the development of cooperative manipulation techniques, which are based on rules for combining single user interaction techniques. Finally, we report an evaluation of cooperative manipulation scenarios, the results indicating that, in certain situations, cooperative manipulation is more efficient and usable than singleuser manipulation.